A speed hump (versus a parking lot speed bump) is a low, paved mound designed to reduce mid-block speeds to approximately 30 km/h. It is a gentle transition for slower moving vehicles, but is uncomfortable for faster moving vehicles. Speed cushions are used on roadways with a posted speed limit of 50 km/h. Speed cushions provide an opening designed for vehicles with a wide wheel base, such as buses and fire trucks, so they may pass through with minimal disruption. Speed tables are similar to speed humps, but also include an elevated flat area similar to a raised crosswalk. The speed table has the same function as a speed hump, but is used in 50 km/h speed zones.
Curb extensions are typically a reconstruction of the sidewalk to extend into the roadway, resulting in a narrower roadway width. They can be placed at intersections or at mid-block locations. Median islands on wide, busy streets can provide pedestrians with a safe mid-way point when crossing uncontrolled intersections.
Pedestrian crosswalks are important on long busy streets where there are no nearby vehicle traffic lights. Pedestrian activated signals can use either overhead flashing lights or a more traditional stop light configuration. Intersection markings can be important on busy secondary streets. These include the large stop lines and zebra crossing marks. They increase stop sign compliance and help stop drivers further back from pedestrians crossing intersections.
Limit your speed boards are permanent signs which use a radar detection system that is activated by speeding vehicles. When a vehicle is speeding, the radar system is used to detect the speed and the sign displays flashing lights, the speed limit and a message to slow down.
Street and intersection alignments seek to reduce the number of high speed collisions by reducing the angle of impacts or improving the viewing angles of merging drivers. Example realignment options include traffic circles and straighter right turn ramps.
Reducing the width of wider-than-required lanes with pavement markings is proven to reduce traffic speeds. These markings can include adding centre lines on neighbourhood streets that do not have them; marked parking lanes; bike lanes, painted medians and more.
Signage can be used to control traffic by alerting motorists of traffic-calmed neighbourhoods, restricting turns, prohibiting through traffic and incorporating one-ways. Such restrictions are particularly useful during school pick-up/drop-off periods or during rush hours.